Amazon Mercury Pollution — A Global Issue — A Solution.
Our mercury (Hg)-free Au ore processing cyanide (CN)-free Tailings Remediation Action Plan (“TRAP”) Innovation to #MakeMercuryHistory in mercury (“Hg”)-dependent Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (“ASGM”), our Planet’s largest anthropogenic source of Hg (a deadly neurotoxin) pollution resulted in;
*uncovering the low-cost Gravity Borax Method (“GBM”) for sustainable Au recovery proven by ASG miners and documented by Scientists to recover 3–5 times more Au potentially eliminating Hg discharge and vaporization to our biosphere to produce 15- 20% of the world’s Au supply for jewellery, and electronics Au which we’ve enhanced to further increase Au recovery by;
*adding roasting of the ore concentrate to remove sulphides and oxidize the mineral contaminants which increases the smelting efficiency of using borax as a flux to recover the Au specifically for the Portovelo-Zaruma geology and,
*replacing ASG miners inefficient balleta’s (wool carpets) lined sluices with a low-cost light weight locally tooled Popandson sluice lined with unbacked Nomads matting (a.k.a. miners moss) proven to recover 3 times more Au than using balleta’s potentially eliminating ASG miners Hg use in whole-ore Chancha barrel processing when they realize how much more Au is recovered,
*discovering low-cost shaker tables (a.k.a. self-cleaning sluices), a nominal investment to make more money proven to recover 95%+ of the Au > 325 mesh after milling for *APROPLASMIN Members (“Members”) to replace their inefficient Chilean mill concrete balleta lined sluices well documented to lose up to 70% of the Au as tailings, and eliminate their use of toxic Peter Plates; stacked copper (Cu) plates hand-covered in Hg and,
*providing Members a new and sustainable source of income remediating their existing and abandoned toxic tailings ponds using shaker tables proven to recover 100% of the spent Hg for safe and proper disposal, and 100% of both the silver (“Ag”) considered a contaminant and not processed, and the Hg-flour Au to make more money and,
*creating new jobs and mitigating further human and biodiversity destruction costs by remediating one Chilean processing centers tailings ponds at a time and scalable.
Our TRAP to #MakeMercuryHistory in ASGM starts in the Portovelo-Zaruma mining district Ecuador with Zaruma, one of Ecuador’s five UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and ongoing biodiversity disaster for decades due to ASG miners and Members use, misuse of Hg, and other toxic compounds discharged and vaporized to our biosphere.
Unite behind the Science to #MakeMercuryHistory in ASGM, our Planets largest anthropogenic source of mercury (“Hg”) pollution starting in the Portovelo-Zaruma, Ecuador mining district.
The human health and biodiversity costs for our jewellery and electronics gold (“Au”).
Hg-dependent ASGM employs ~20 million poverty stricken miners including ~4.5 million women & ~600,000 children in 70 Countries directly impacting 100 million people and is responsible for our Planets largest anthropogenic source of deadly Hg pollution from processing ore and tailings for jewellery Au.
According to Responsibles Mines, in 2002, ASG mining generated 65% of the direct employment within the broader ASM sector in Ecuador (60,000 of 92,000 jobs).
The United Nations reported in 2012, Ecuador has 1,349 artisanal operations of which 1,069 are gold operations.
According to planetGOLD today more than 32,000+ people are employed in the mining sector including 3,200 women with 11,000+ peoples livelihoods depending on ASGM.
According to Mining[dot]com, “Ecuador Gold mining industry to grow eightfold by 2021” from “$1.1 billion 2017 to $7.9 billion in 2021”.
According to UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) June 2012 report, it was estimated that “Ecuador emitted 20 to 50 tons of Hg, a deadly neurotoxin to the environment in 1997 from ASGM”.
Currently, Ecuador is subject to an internationally supported lawsuit from Peru for biodiversity destruction caused by the Portovelo-Zaruma ASG miner’s toxic wastes and tailings affecting Peru’s soil quality, agriculture, aquatic life, drinking water, and the health of people.
The amount of environmental and health damages is estimated to be up to $USD 35 billion.
According to Adriana Gonçalves et al 2015 research study, there were 240 Au mine concessions
and 87 Hg-amalgamation Chilean processing centers lined up along one square mile of the Calera and Amarillo river banks in Portovelo-Zaruma area.
Collectively they discharge 1.9 million tonnes/annum of toxic heavy metal chemical tailings surface sludge into the Calera and Amarillo rivers including; 2,033 tonnes of toxic cyanide (“CN”)/annum, 222 kg of Hg/annum providing mobility for Hg and toxic Hg-CN compounds killing all local aquatic species causing terrestrial destruction and fluvial disbursement of the pollutant throughout the Amazon through to the Pacific Ocean making Hg pollution a Global Issue.
June 1994, Jerome Nriagu reported the average loss of Hg in S. and Central America from Spanish mining was 612 tonnes per year between 1580–1900 (420 years) totaling 196,000 tonnes.
The WHO (World Health Organization) considers Hg as one of the top ten chemicals or groups of chemicals of major public health concern on the Planet.
The UN Environment has classified Hg as a neuro-, nephro-, & immunotoxic, a “chemical of global concern” owing to its long-range atmospheric transportation, persistence in the environment once anthropogenically introduced, ability to bioaccumulate in ecosystems and its’ significant negative effects on human health and our environment.
Zaruma, one of Ecuador’s 5 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Zarumas’ twin city are both responsible for our Planets largest anthropogenic source of Hg pollution creating a biodiversity catastrophe from miss-use, mishandling, discharge to the Callera and Amarillo rivers & vaporization to our biosphere by ASG miners processing ore & tailings to recover Au.
It’s not just about Hg a deadly neurotoxin, it’s that our own human bacteria and environmental microbes transform Hg to Methylmercury (“MeHg”)
an even more deadly powerful neurotoxin to humans & wildlife alike than elemental Hg, and which poses developmental, hormonal, & neurological threats to humans & wildlife with unknown biomagnification effects.
Ore processed sustainably without Hg or CN to safely recover more Au
supports Ecuador’s Minamata Article 7 ASGM National Action Plan (NAP), the objective of the UN Environment Programme The (COP) Minamata Convention on Mercury, a legally binding International Treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from Anthropogenic emissions and releases of Hg and Hg compounds and where possible, eliminate the use of Hg to #MakeMercuryHistory in ASGM ratified by 122 countries including Ecuador on 29th of July, 2016.
According to the Journal of Health Pollution, ASG miners typically use 500 grams of Hg to recover 1.5 grams of Au.
~30% of the Hg is vaporized to our biosphere and ~70% discharged into the rivers as a toxic chemical heavy metal waste tailings surface sludge which contains 5–10 grams per ton of Au as Hg-flour-Au.
ASG miners rinse these tailings with toxic cyanide (“CN”) before discharge as they mistakenly believe will recover more Au only to recover less than 10% of the Au in the Hg-flour sludge.
Our innovation addresses and resolves individual/community/family ASG miners Hg concerns, health and developing fetus threats, monetary and biodiversity issues
with the use of ecofriendly low-cost Gravity Borax Method (“GBM”)
of sluicing using household soap (instead of Hg) to concentrate the Au while panning then roasting the concentrate to remove contaminant minerals and sulphides followed by vaporizing the Au concentrate in a crucible with borax as a flux for smelting to recover the Au “button”.
The GBM uses borax as a flux for smelting is proven for decades to safely recover between 3 times (Philippines, Indonesia, Tanzania) to 5 times (Bolivia) more Au sustainably with zero toxic tailings thereby eliminating ASG miners Hg use, vaporization & discharge to our biosphere and subsequent rinsing of tailings with CN for miners to #MakeMoreMoney.
Our innovation replaces the GBM “balleta” (wool carpet) sluice with a low-cost locally tooled Popandson sluice containing Nomad matting “miners moss” proven to recover ~98% of the Au for miners to safely recover more Au sustainably and #MakeMoreMoney.
A Popandson sluice consists of a series of different sizes of raised expanded metal over miners moss with recoveries of 95%+ of Au from 75–150 micron, and 85%+ of Au from 50–75 micron in a single pass.
Small Au nuggets up to 8.5 mm are also captured and a reported 3 times more Au recovered than using balletas.
Recently Clean Earth Technologies completed their Award-winning, non-toxic gold recovery agent ‘Artisanal Solution’ Field Test Demonstration at Leonora, Western Australia (2–9 December 2019) reporting 50% higher gold recovery from carbonaceous ores.
Our innovation includes roasting the Au-ore concentrate before smelting with borax
which removes contaminant metals including sulphides extending the GBM use and amenability to low-medium sulphide ores including Portovelo-Zaruma mining district geology.
Roasting also increases borax flux smelting efficiency while eliminating ASG miners Hg use, vaporization and discharge to our biosphere and subsequent rinsing of tailings with CN.
Our innovation also targets the larger audience, APROPLASMIN (Association of Owners of Plants of Ore Reduction, Smelting and Refining of Mineral Substances of El Oro Province) 65 members owning ~110 (2010) Chilean processing centers in Portovelo-Zaruma and El Pache area, processing ~10,000 local ASG miners and ~40,000 neighboring miners ore and tailings in tonnage quantities transported for processing.
In 2015, 87 centers were operating with 78 licenses with each center processing ~1,860 tonnes of ore/month to produce a “reported” ~5.7 Kg of Au/month using ~2.4 Kg of Hg/month and 2.05 tonnes/CN/month/center.
There are currently three options for the miners to process ore @ the Portovelo-Zaruma, El Pache area Chilean processing centers including cyanidation, Chancha barrel whole-ore Hg-amalgamation and Chilean mill processing of which the latter two result in losses of Au, Hg vaporized to our biosphere and discharged into/and polluting the Calera and Amarillo rivers as toxic Au-rich Hg-CN heavy metal surface sludge tailings providing mobility for Hg making Hg pollution a Global Issue.
The pollutant is fluvially dispersed throughout the Amazon with dire/catastrophic consequences to our human and developing fetus health, killing all local aquatic species causing terrestrial devastation flowing west through the Peru Puyango-Tumbes river basin to the Gulf of Guayaquil to the Pacific Ocean making Hg pollution a Global Issue
The Au rich tailings are left to the processors as payment for using the equipment which is a contentious issue as the miners don’t know the Au content in the tailings.
While all miners would prefer to have their ore processed by either the Merrill Crowe (35% of the Chilean centers 2015) cyanidation or Carbon-in-Pulp (CIP-65% of the Chilean centers 2015) cyanidation circuit as the Au recovery is 80 -85%, they can’t afford the cost or the processing time which is typically 6–8 weeks as they require their Au money immediately.
A Chilean mill crushes the Au-ore in a water (H2O) slurry forcing it through a 0.20 mm mesh into 2 parallel sluices containing balletas to concentrate the Au-slurry which is panned using Hg to further concentrate the ore before vaporizing the Au-Hg-amalgam to recover the Au bullet.
Typically each center operates with 6–8 Chilean mills shovel filled with crushed ore for milling @ .5 tonnes /hr. 24/7.
Each mill has 2 parallel sluices containing balletas to capture & concentrate the Au.
The balletas are laboriously removed from the sluice and rinsed every one hr. in a bucket to recover the Au concentrate.
Balletas have been documented and proven to lose 30–70% of the Au-slurry to tailings either discharged to the Callera/Amarillo rivers by 35% of the centers (2015) or stored in tailings ponds by 65% of the centers for subsequent Sodium CN processing.
Our innovation remediates the Chilean processing center and grounds, builds a modern teaching center, removes the balleta sluices and elevates the Chilean mill to accommodate 2 mechanical 4' x 8' “shaking tables” (a.k.a. self-cleaning sluices)
for gravitational separation of the minerals proven to recover ~98% of the Au after milling.
The tables can also be used to remediate existing tailings proven to recover up to 100% of spent Hg and 100% of the Au subject to operator efficiency and table setting accuracy which supports Ecuador’s, El Tablón tailings project.
No ongoing laborious changing of balletas.
Zero Au-slurry lost to tailings as shaking tables separate minerals by density (specific gravity) not particle size.
The use of shaking tables eliminates the need for Hg-panning and subsequent Hg-vaporization and discharge to our biosphere as the concentrated Au-ore is roasted and then smelted using ecofriendly Borax to safely recover the Au sustainably.
The 2nd option for ASG miners is to rent the Chancha barrels whole ore Hg-amalgamation processing room which operates with 4–8, 1–2 tonne ore capacity barrels for with balleta sluicing and Hg-panning for gravity separation of the minerals to further concentrate the Au.
The miners typically add 300–500 grams of Hg, coke-cola, bars of soap, brown sugar (local terminology “panela”), toothpaste, urine, bleach and a number of household detergents to the Chancha barrels believing the solution will clean the amalgam and improve Au recovery.
Chancha barrel whole ore Hg-amalgamating using followed by balleta sluicing with Hg-panning prior to vaporizing the Hg-Au-amalgam to recover the Au.
The ore-solution is pulverized in the rotating Chancha barrels containing with steel balls/rocks/steel rods and Hg-amalgamated for 24 hrs.
The pulverized ore is then sluiced using copper (Cu) plates hand covered with Hg to capture the Au concentrate followed by Hg-panning to further concentrate the Au.
The collected Au-Hg-amalgam is placed in a cheese cloth rinsed and hand squeezed to remove excess Hg.
The Au-Hg-amalgam is placed in a crucible and vaporized releasing Hg to our biosphere leaving behind a Au “button” while making Hg mobile and our Global Issue.
The Au button typically contains ~5–7% Hg plus silver (“Ag”) which is sold to a Au shop @ a discounted price below market the vaporized in close quarters to remove the Hg/Ag in the button releasing the residual Hg to our biosphere poisoning himself and polluting local residents environment.
Our innovation eliminates the use of Hg in whole ore Chancha barrel processing with the use of the GBM proven to safely recover more Au sustainably adapted with a Popandson sluice then roasting of the Au-concentrate then smelting with ecofriendly borax to safely and sustainably recover more Au.
To fund the acquisition and conversion of a Chilean processing center with the adoption of our Innovation, we have created our Planet’s 1st #ClimateAction Cryptocurrency Utility Token
We will be conducting a an Initial Coin Offering (I.C.O.) Token Sales Events (T.S.E.).
Our AlchemyLGCoin© utility token is a negotiable title of ownership in a digital crypto form, asset backed with *Limited Edition* one-ounce #ClimateAction Au (95%+purity) coins certified sustainably mined and processed @ our Hg and CN free ore processing and tailings remediation pilot plant in Portovelo-Zaruma.
Join with us in our call for action to #MakeMercuryHistory in ASGM in Portovelo-Zaruma, Ecuador the Planets largest #anthropogenic source of deadly toxic #mercurypollution and ongoing local terrestrial and Global biodiversity destruction.
Participate as an Investor, Partner or Stakeholder in #Crowdfunding the World's’ 1st mercury-free gold ore processing & cyanide-free tailings remediation minerals reclamation pilot plant in Zaruma, one of Ecuador’s five UNESCO World Heritage sites with decades of ongoing human and developing fetus health threats caused by ASG miners use, misuse, discharge and vaporization of mercury to our biosphere.
Purchase our utility tokens and exchange them during our Token to Gold exchange program and be the proud owner of the World’s 1st *Limited Edition* #ClimateAction one-ounce gold coins (95%+ purity) certified safely and sustainably processed mercury-free
available only to our existing token holders 8 months post I.C.O.
Download our Impact Investment Capital Opportunity @ our 👉 Corporate Site for details & sign up for our Blog.
Our Innovation supports OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (CAHRA’s).
AMAZON MERCURY POLLUTION - A GLOBAL ISSUE
Portovelo-Zaruma Au mining History and Hg need to know facts.
Au mining has occurred in Portovelo-Zaruma since the early 15th century Inca conquest scaled up by the Spanish crown in the mid-15th century.1904 through 1950,South American Development Company (SADCO)produced 3.5 million ounces (~99,223 Kg) of Au and 12 million ounces of Ag according to Core Gold,Inc.An additional, 1.5 million ounces (~42,524 Kg) of Au was produced over the next 20 years by various groups totaling ~ 141,747 Kg of Au produced since the 15th Century.
Upon skin contact and/or inhalation, both Hg and MeHg will damage the central nervous system, kidney, spleen
and penetrate the blood placenta barrier
causing unborn fetus deformation and retardation,
and the blood brain barrier
causing health deterioration, ataxia along with numerous other symptoms leading to a gruesome long painful death particularly for ASG miners who suffer from Hg poisoning.
The World Gold Council reports, 190,040 tonnes of Au have been mined throughout history through 2017, 47.7% was Au for jewelry which in 2018, rose to 52.44%.
ASGM is the Planets largest ️Anthropogenic source of deadly toxic Hg pollution overtaking coal-fired plants Hg emissions in 2017 primarily due to China & India’s Au demand for jewelry and Russia’s departure from fiat currency according to the World Gold Council.
According to a 2018 research publication, “Mercury (II) Binding Activity of vegetable and Fruit Juices: Identifying Potential Detoxifying Juices for the Citizens of Portovelo-Zaruma, Ecuador”, Scientific study July, 2015 found that;
Atmospheric Hg concentrations detected ((Minimum public exposure risk level of 200 ng/ m3 (nanograms per cubic meter))
Urban central area of Portovelo
Wet seasons 214.6±43.7 ng/m3
Dry seasons 574.2±72.8 ng/m3
Gold Shop Hg
Outside > 1,000,000 ng/m3
Inside >2,000,000 ng/m3 immediately after burning Au- amalgam.
El Pache area , Portovelo Au processing region
Rainy seasons; 2,356.7±1,807.6 ng/m3
Dry seasons; 3,699.5±1,225.3 ng /m3
Hg in exhaled air from miners in Portovelo before/after burning Au-Hg-amalgams.
Before; 170–1,352 ng/m3
Afterwards; 2,007–3,389 ng/m3
(1,000 ng/m3 maximum public exposure of inorganic Hg vapour — the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry — a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services)
🌄 Your Donations will fund the continuation of our digital marketing and awareness campaign, our efforts to finance the acquisition and conversion of an APROPLASMIN Chilean Processing center and implementation of our Innovation to #MakeMercuryHistory in ASGM beginning in Portovelo-Zaruma, Ecuador
Alchemy Mining Group, Inc. — a Nevada For Profit — Benefit Corporation
Bruce A. Cosgrove, M.Sc., (Chemistry) Pres./C.F.O.
Founder- Alchemy Liquid Gold Coin©
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